SEWAGE LINKED CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC RECREATIONAL BEACH WATERS IN MOMBASA COUNTY KENYA
HAMID , HAITHAM ABDULAZIZ
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Population increase and coastal development causes marine pollution. The increasing influx of sewage to coastal waters poses a direct threat to human and environmental health upon which the economy relies (Murray, 2007). Escherichia coli and nutrient levels as indicators of sewage pollution were used to determine the quality of the coastal recreational water in Mombasa County. The recreational beaches in Mombasa County which include; Madubaha, Shelly, Jomo Kenyatta Public and the Mombasa Marine Park are the main sources of tourist attraction. Water samples were collected during both the South-East (November and April) and North-East (October and March) monsoon seasons. Water samples were analyzed for microbial indicator levels through Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), total coliform and E. coli cultures, and the nutrient enrichment (N, P) was determined using APHA methods against known standards. The indicator levels were compared between the 4 sites using ANOVA analysis, and with the set standards using a one sample T-test. The beaches were safe for recreational activities as the levels of total coliform, Escherichia coli, BOD, and nutrient enrichment at all sites was lower than set standards for recreational waters as P-value of >0.05 were obtained. However, the presence of E.coli in beach waters indicates recent pollution and presence of more harmful pathogens. E.coli levels at Madubaha beach were elevated an effect of sewage pollution and storm water runoff as 2-1600 CFU/100mL were recorded. At Madubaha beach sewage pollution was highly influenced by precipitation events at Mombasa County. Consequently, unless basic sanitation access and treatment are addressed in an appropriate manner, sewage pollution in Mombasa County will imminently have severe economic and environmental consequences.