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dc.contributor.authorODUNDO, ALICE AWINO
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-01T08:10:14Z
dc.date.available2023-08-01T08:10:14Z
dc.date.issued2021-08-01
dc.identifier.otherHYGIENE PRACTICES OF FOOD HANDLERS AND THE BACTERIAL LOAD OF FRESH VEGETABLE SALAD IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN MOMBASA COUNTY, KENYA
dc.identifier.otherALICE AWINO ODUNDO
dc.identifier.urihttp://elibrary.pu.ac.ke/handle/123456789/1069
dc.descriptionConsumption of fresh vegetable salad has increased all around the world. Many consumers strive to eat healthy diets to protect themselves from illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Despite the health benefits of vegetable salad, they have been associated with outbreaks of food borne disease in many countries. Many health problems can arise from the consumption of contaminated prepared salad if hygiene practices are not adhered to. This study was carried out in registered private hospitals in Mombasa County, Kenya. The study sought to assess the hygiene practices of food handlers and the bacterial load in fresh vegetable salad served in private hospitals in Mombasa County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: isolate and identify any Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococci aureus pathogens from the fresh vegetable salad; establish the food handlers’ knowledge of the food hygiene practices and assess the food handlers' personal hygiene, equipment use/ handling practices, and environmental hygiene. The study adopted an experimental design, whereby laboratory tests were carried out to isolate and identify Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococci aureus pathogens from 180 prepared homogenate samples from carrots, tomatoes, and lettuce using standard media, biochemical tests and serology where applicable. Cultures were only considered positive when unsatisfactory limits were met, that is, Escherichia coli ≥102cfu /g, presence of Salmonella typhi = culture positive and Staphylococcus aureus ≥104 cfu /g. An observation method was used to assess the hygiene practices of 160 food handlers in private hospitals. Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Multiple Linear regression analysis was used to test the relationship between hygiene practices of food handlers and the bacterial load of fresh vegetable salad. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens were present in all the testing stages. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism present in the vegetable salad cultures. Escherichia coli in tomato samples; before washing/cleaning 11.7%; preparation stage 8.3% and service stage 13.3%. In lettuce samples, Escherichia coli isolated: before washing/cleaning 31.7%; preparation stage 8.3% and service stage 13.3%. While in carrot samples: before washing/cleaning 25%; preparation stage 10% and service stage 18.3%. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was an overall significant relationship between the food handlers' knowledge of food hygiene practices, the personal hygiene of the food handlers the equipment use/handling practices and finally, the environmental hygiene and bacterial load of the vegetable salad. It was therefore recommended that food handlers should be trained on safe food handling practices in order prevent contamination and bacterial growth in vegetable salad. The findings of the study would be beneficial to the management of private hospitals and other stakeholders in the hospitality industry on ways and methods of reducing food borne illnesses. The presence of these microorganisms in vegetable salad samples can also be used as an indicator, to increase awareness of the health hazards that can be caused by improper handling of vegetables.en_US
dc.description.abstractConsumption of fresh vegetable salad has increased all around the world. Many consumers strive to eat healthy diets to protect themselves from illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Despite the health benefits of vegetable salad, they have been associated with outbreaks of food borne disease in many countries. Many health problems can arise from the consumption of contaminated prepared salad if hygiene practices are not adhered to. This study was carried out in registered private hospitals in Mombasa County, Kenya. The study sought to assess the hygiene practices of food handlers and the bacterial load in fresh vegetable salad served in private hospitals in Mombasa County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: isolate and identify any Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococci aureus pathogens from the fresh vegetable salad; establish the food handlers’ knowledge of the food hygiene practices and assess the food handlers' personal hygiene, equipment use/ handling practices, and environmental hygiene. The study adopted an experimental design, whereby laboratory tests were carried out to isolate and identify Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococci aureus pathogens from 180 prepared homogenate samples from carrots, tomatoes, and lettuce using standard media, biochemical tests and serology where applicable. Cultures were only considered positive when unsatisfactory limits were met, that is, Escherichia coli ≥102cfu /g, presence of Salmonella typhi = culture positive and Staphylococcus aureus ≥104 cfu /g. An observation method was used to assess the hygiene practices of 160 food handlers in private hospitals. Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Multiple Linear regression analysis was used to test the relationship between hygiene practices of food handlers and the bacterial load of fresh vegetable salad. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens were present in all the testing stages. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism present in the vegetable salad cultures. Escherichia coli in tomato samples; before washing/cleaning 11.7%; preparation stage 8.3% and service stage 13.3%. In lettuce samples, Escherichia coli isolated: before washing/cleaning 31.7%; preparation stage 8.3% and service stage 13.3%. While in carrot samples: before washing/cleaning 25%; preparation stage 10% and service stage 18.3%. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was an overall significant relationship between the food handlers' knowledge of food hygiene practices, the personal hygiene of the food handlers the equipment use/handling practices and finally, the environmental hygiene and bacterial load of the vegetable salad. It was therefore recommended that food handlers should be trained on safe food handling practices in order prevent contamination and bacterial growth in vegetable salad. The findings of the study would be beneficial to the management of private hospitals and other stakeholders in the hospitality industry on ways and methods of reducing food borne illnesses. The presence of these microorganisms in vegetable salad samples can also be used as an indicator, to increase awareness of the health hazards that can be caused by improper handling of vegetables.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPwani Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherPwani Universityen_US
dc.subjectHYGIENE PRACTICESen_US
dc.subjectFOOD HANDLERSen_US
dc.subjectBACTERIAL LOAD OF FRESH VEGETABLE SALADen_US
dc.titleHYGIENE PRACTICES OF FOOD HANDLERS AND THE BACTERIAL LOAD OF FRESH VEGETABLE SALAD IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN MOMBASA COUNTY, KENYA ALICE AWINOen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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