PEDAGOGICAL CHALLENGES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR PUPILS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENTS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN MOMBASA COUNTY, KENYA
LUVANGA, HASSAN BAKARI
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the pedagogical challenges encountered by teachers and the strategies that the teachers apply in implementing inclusive practices for pupils with hearing impairments in public primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya. Inclusion is a pertinent contemporary issue in basic education that Kenya is in the process of implementing. It is a philosophy that focuses on the process of adjusting the home, school, and the larger society to accommodate persons with special needs. The successful provision of inclusive practices in schools is contingent upon the quality of teaching in an inclusive classroom setting. The study investigated teachers’ academic and professional preparedness, availability of teaching-learning resources, attitudes and perceptions of teachers and the strategies applied by teachers while implementing inclusive practices within the inclusive classroom for pupils with hearing impairments. This study involved a sample of 210 teachers and 20 head teachers. The study employed a descriptive survey design involving both qualitative and quantitative data. Descriptive statistics involving percentages and frequency distribution tables were used to present the quantitative data. Conversely, qualitative data was analyzed using the NVivo7 by memoing and coding the findings, which formed the themes and patterns discussed in this study, and a taxonomy table was presented. The study findings indicated that although most teachers had the necessary academic qualifications, they lacked adequate special education training necessary for teaching pupils with hearing impairments within inclusive classroom settings. Teachers reported that they had challenges in the methods and strategies that were being used to implement inclusive practices in teaching pupils with hearing impairments. The study also revealed that inadequate teaching-learning resources occasioned teachers’ negative attitudes and perceptions towards inclusion. Arising from these findings, the study recommends that teachers should be adequately prepared during their pre-service education training program to effectively teach pupils with hearing impairments within an inclusive classroom setting. The Ministry of Education in Kenya should re-introduce regular in-service training for teachers. The training should include the area of special needs education. Teachers being the curriculum implementers should be involved in the curriculum review process. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) should have a pedagogical shift that differentiates instruction to meet the needs of pupils with either mild, severe, or profound hearing loss.